... Jerome Kagan's classification of temperament focuses on: inhibition to the unfamiliar. insecure avoidant infant and rejecting parenting. In the Strange Situation, Latoya basically ignored her mother, was not upset when she left the room, and did not seek her out when she returned. The Harlow (1958) study concluded that contact comfort is more important for attachment than feeding. By Jerome Kagan - One of the strongest articles of faith among psychotherapists is the intuitively attractive proposition that the security of early attachments to parents has a profound influence on adult mental health. According to Jerome Kagan, children with which of the following types of temperament at age two to three later showed social phobia symptoms at seven years of age? d) unshared environments are important in temperament development. Javier is using: Which of the following statements about reciprocal socialization is TRUE? However, when I examine the evidence for this belief as a research psychologist, rather than as a clinical practitioner, a different, less clear-cut picture emerges. He followed his test subjects from infancy through adulthood, evaluating specific traits at different periods… She does this repeatedly, letting the baby keep the rattle for several seconds each time and encouraging the baby to offer the rattle. Discuss Temperament. 19. What is the purpose of the MMPI and MMPI 2? The links are there, but have yet to be completely understood. Identify the BIG Five - What is Raymond Cattell's contribution to trait theory? as a measure of attachment, it may be culturally biased. 46. He cried for a long time and would not play with the other children. According to the life-span perspective, when do developmental changes occur? Ans: b 21. What does Zimbardo conclude about temperament? He defined two types of temperament; inhibited and uninhibited. B) typically reacts intensively to new experiences, strangers, and novel objects. A. primary B. other worldly C. other-conscious D. conscious 12. genius Most five-year-olds cannot correctly solve the classic conservation task involving equal amounts of water in different-sized containers because their thinking is characterized by: I rreversibility and centration. is minimally influenced by inherited physiological characteristics but is primarily the result of environmental input. Monsena is an independent and adventurous child who likes to explore new places in her environment. 3. Kagan primarily focused on children's fear and apprehension. Colin does not earn high grades on standardized tests but has a black belt in martial arts. Jerome Kagan worked on his theory about childhood temperament which may affect adults greatly, and he came up with two types of temperament: inhibited and uninhibited. extraversion/surgency, negative affectivity, and effortful control. Makiko feels ashamed when her friend comes over for a play-date and teases her about wearing night-time diapers. Erik Erikson describes the second stage of personality development as the stage of ________ versus shame and doubt. ... Jerome Kagan and his colleagues have studied how children’s temperaments can vary as a result of variations in the responses of their sympathetic nervous systems . Especially in infancy, emotions play important roles in ________. What evidence was used to support this conclusion? In terms of Jerome Kagan's temperament classification system Nicholas would probably be classified as: 2.The mental processes people use to make sense of their social environments are to _____ as the effects of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior are to _____. According to Kagan, 22. Behaviorism was popular at the beginning of Kagan's career, but Kagan's research led him to believe that environment wasn't the sole determining factor of a child's personality, and he began to examine the influence of biological factors. Mary Rothbart and John Bates believe that infant temperament falls into which of the following categories? According to Ellen Langer, _____ being alert, mentally present, and cognitively flexible while going through life’s everyday activities and tasks—is an important aspect of thinking critically. ... question. Children socialize parents just as parents socialize children. when she meets a stranger in an unfamiliar place. Little Katie runs up to her mother and says, "Me scared." Jerome Kagan. Now that her baby, Hailey, is 15 months old, Cindy has accepted a full-time job offer. According to this definition, the answer to our question is clear: the young woman in the ad is indeed sick. According to the text, the 2 most common methods parents use for managing and guiding infants’ undesirable behaviors are diverting attention and: ... _____ refers to the match between a child’s temperament and the environmental demands of the child must cope with. According to the core knowledge perspective, A) each infant's five sense permit a ready grasp of new, related information ... Temperament refers to. Temperament and personality are clearly related, but not the same thing, based on both conceptual and empirical grounds. Mary Ainsworth would say that Elaine is, a quick, comforting response to the infant's cries. A clown jumps in front of them, and Javier looks at his father to see if he is afraid or laughing. According to psychiatrists Alexander Chess and Stella Thomas, what type of temperament does Josh have? According to Jerome Kagan, there is no set outcome for a particular temperament, but most characteristics of temperament are stable over time and contribute to our adult personality. Which statement is FALSE? Steven Suomi studies monkeys. On several occasions, she has slapped his hand when he reaches for her cell phone. This behavior continued for a few more days. However, when she sees an unknown face, she gets upset and cries for her mother. according to Freud, psychic energy that fuels sexuality. Inhibited temperament occurs with shy and fearful children, whereas uninhibited has to do with kids who are sociable and outgoing. According to some research, what might be more important than attachment style in predicting later social functioning? At what age do children first show fear when a new person enters their environment? Some days, Josh would throw tantrums right before his mother dropped him off, and on other days he would cry and scream after his mom left him at the preschool. is the result of inherited physiological characteristics; however, temperament can be modified to some degree by the environment. B) The majority of babies in the study were easily upset by novelty. Infants exposed to unfamiliarity reacted strongly to the stimuli and cried loudly, pumped their limbs, and had an increased heart rate. In which of the following situations will 9-month-old Lucy show the most stranger anxiety? Katie is at least. She then gently takes the rattle away, smiling and saying, "Thank you." This is an example of: Which of the following best exemplifies the difference between how mothers and fathers interact with their children? Javier and his father are at the circus. Everyday when Cindy drops Hailey off at the day care, Hailey screams and cries for a couple of minutes. differences between children who are shy and timid and those who are sociable and bold. Stable characteristics of temperament. Temperament researchers agree that individual differences in temperament have a genetic and biological basis. Which concept helps the infant understand that other people have intentions? When put on the floor to play, baby Elaine cries as if she wants to be held. c) peers are important in the development of temperament. insecure-resistant attachment When put on the floor to play, baby Elaine cries as if she wants to be held. Kagan's research suggests that a) temperament is fixed in childhood. According to Jerome Kagan, temperament: A. is the result of inherited physiological characteristics; however, temperament can be modified to some degree by the environment. 10-15 % of children are either out going or slight bias to be fearful and cautious. B. is the result of inherited physiological characteristics and cannot be modified by the environment. According to Jerome Kagan, how does a child acquire a certain temperament? Carrie's baby is most likely to develop a(n) ________ toward her. With increased locomotor skills, babies actively seek contact with regular caregivers, such as the mother or father. Which statement about Jerome Kagan's longitudinal research on the stability of temperament is true? In terms of Jerome Kagan's temperament classification system, Nicholas is probably dealing with? What role does the environment play in this trait's development? Which of the following characterizes phase 1 of Bowlby's conceptualization of attachment? ________ refers to the match between a child's temperament and the environmental demands the child must cope with. Kagan found evidence of 20. mindfulness. ... adult personality is formed primarily by childhood experiences. According to Kagan, these children were characterized, at four months of age, by being very reactive to the stimuli of his tests, crying and tensing their limbs. When Josh was dropped off at preschool on the very first day of class, he was quite upset. Attitudes about death and dying. C) About 50 to 70 percent of the extreme groups retained their temperamental styles as they grew older. Which of the following is generally TRUE about child-care settings across the United States, according to your text? answer. a. biology is destiny b. later experiences can lead to overcoming shyness 16. Researchers also agree that: Infancy experts Mary Ainsworth and John Bowlby stress that ________ is an important ingredient in developing a strong bond between the infant and the caregiver. First, Kagan and Moss (1962) conducted an ex post analysis of data from the Fels Longitudinal Study which comprised about 100 normal subjects followed from early childhood to adulthood. One of the conclusions from this analysis was that the only individual characteristic to remain stable across the developmental period under study was shy, timid behavior as opposed to outgoing, so… She tends to smile and become comfortable when her mother picks her up. She often feels overwhelmed and depressed about her situation and frequently neglects her eight-month-old son and his needs. According to Jerome Kagan, temperament: results completely from environmental factors such as parenting styles. Define the term traits. is the result of inherited … These are questions that psychologist Jerome Kagan is interested in. Most five-year-olds cannot correctly solve the classic conservation task involving equal amounts of water in different-sized containers because their thinking is characterized by: Attitudes about death and dying. This is an example of _____ emotions. Infants instinctively direct their attachment to human figures. He loves spending time with his son when he is back from work. Two-month-old Trey is crying loudly. In the United States, parents tend to prefer children with a_____ temperament, whereas in China, _____ a temperament … 15. b) parenting can make a difference in temperament. When her mother picks her up though, Elaine pushes away with both arms and turns her head away. Which of the following activities is he most likely to engage in with his son? Eventually, the baby takes the rattle, holds it for a few seconds, and then holds it out to her mother and smiles. How is temperament a precursor to personality? C) Which type of smiling occurs as a response to an external stimulus? In terms of Jerome Kagan's temperament classification system, Nicholas is probably dealing with? What trait does Jerome Kagan identify immediately at birth? Which of the following phases of Bowlby's conceptualization of attachment is Amy currently in. This type of cry indicates that Trey is: The results of the large National Longitudinal Study of Child Care indicate that: According to Jerome Kagan (2002, 2003), temperament can be classified by focusing on: differences between children who are shy and timid and those who are sociable and bold. However, her mother is overly controlling and rigid. Identifying the temperament qualities that affect the development of personality in infancy and early childhood is also a significant question. Inhibited refers to a shy, timid, and fearful profile of a child, whereas uninhibited refers to the appearance of bold, sociable and outgoing behaviours. Jerome Kagans classification of temperament focuses on A inhibition to the from PSY 251 at University of Southern Mississippi What is the term used to describe "reading" emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation? Carrie is a 19-year-old single mother. Which of the following terms best describes Hailey's behavior? Tyler will most likely: touch the spot on the mirror, because he wonders why that other child has a spot on his nose. Which of the following is an important role played by emotions during infancy? According to Bowlby's conceptualization of attachment, which of the following occurs during phase 3? Why are these tests considered legitimate personality tests? 11. In the United States, parents tend to prefer children with a(n)__________ temperament, whereas in China, a(n) _________ temperament is more highly valued. Psychosexual Stages. The most frequent expression of an infant's fear involves. Amy is a 5-month-old baby girl. How can differences in personality between parent and child influence the developmental process of the child? According to type theories , the personalities of all ... “Temperament ,” on the other hand, refers to a person’s inherited personality characteristics. How does Goodness of Fit play into temperament? A) Most children's dispositions became less extreme over time. NOT Higher-income children enjoy both better teacher-child ratios and better interactions with their teachers than do poor children in child-care programs. libido. Jerome Kagan (2002) has studied the temperamental category of inhibition to the unfamiliar in children. Then there is a long period during which Trey holds his breath (turning red), and then the next crying sound comes out. Evidence that supports the idea that emotions have a strong biological foundation includes all of the following, EXCEPT: Men and women share the same basic emotions. Kagan spent a large part of his career studying the effect of temperament— a stable pattern of personality and emotional reactions —on the behavior of children. According to critics, the Strange Situation might not be able to capture important differences among infants because. Developmental psychologists would say that a discussion of this discrepancy concerns: A mother hands her baby a rattle, saying, "Here you are." Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Latoya as: If an infant is raised in a neglectful environment and is not comforted or soothed during distress, the infant will most likely be delayed in: How do child-care programs for children in low-income families compare with child care available to children in families of higher economic status? His cry starts with a piercing shrill sound. Which of the following would Erik Erikson most likely recommend to soothe a crying infant? ... Attitudes about death and dying. A) quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity. According to Jerome Kagan, children with which of the following types of temperament at age two to three later showed social phobia symptoms at seven years of age? According to Gardner, Colin has _____ skills. Baby monkeys spent more time with cloth surrogate mothers than with wire surrogate mothers. According to developmental psychologist Jerome Kagan, a low-reactive infant: A) would have difficulty adjusting to loud, busy, or crowded environments. a. Shyness is inherited b. As delineated by Jerome Kagan (1989b, 1994; Ellis & Robbins, 1990), two events developed his interest in temperament research. Cindy has worked from home as a freelancer ever since she had a baby. children and temperament; 10% highly reactive, 80% middle, 10% nonreactive. Nine-month-old Tyler is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Jerome Kagan studies child temperament. The researchers Pick up the baby and soothe him or her so that a healthy sense of trust develops. about being in a strange environment. In terms of Jerome Kagan's temperament classification system, Nicholas is probably dealing with? Ryan is father to an 11-month-old baby boy. 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